The Meaning of Emergency
Emergency situations are something that we all understand, but let’s take a moment to examine what exactly an emergency is. According to the dictionary, an emergency is a serious, unexpected, often dangerous situation that requires immediate action. There are four key words that define an emergency: serious, unexpected, dangerous, and immediate action.
Let’s consider a couple of examples to illustrate this. Imagine that tomorrow, your company decides to lay off 200 employees, and unfortunately, your name is on the list. This is a serious situation because it affects your livelihood, it is unexpected because you did not see it coming, it is dangerous because it puts your financial stability at risk, and it requires immediate action to secure a new source of income.
Now, let’s consider another example. You are driving on the road and suddenly get into an accident. Again, this is a serious situation as it poses a threat to your safety, it is unexpected because you did not anticipate the accident, it is dangerous due to the potential for injuries, and it requires immediate action to seek medical help and resolve the situation.
The point is, emergencies can come in various shapes and sizes, and they can happen to anyone. No one is immune to emergencies. While we cannot completely avoid these situations, we can take steps to prepare ourselves and minimize their impact.
The Importance of an Emergency Fund
An emergency fund serves as your best friend in times of crisis. It acts as a financial safety net, reducing the impact of an emergency and transforming it from a crisis into a mere inconvenience. But how much money do you need to build for your emergency fund?
There is a simple thumb rule that can help you determine the ideal amount for your emergency fund based on your circumstances. If you are a single income-earning individual without any dependents, such as a spouse, children, or financially dependent parents, you should aim to have six times your monthly average expenditure saved in your emergency fund.
If you have up to two dependents, you should multiply your monthly expenditure by 12 to determine the target amount for your emergency fund. For those with three to four dependents, multiply your monthly expenditure by 18 to ensure you have sufficient funds for emergencies.
On the other hand, if you are part of a dual-income earning family, the calculation differs. If you have no dependents, three months of your monthly expenditure is considered an adequate emergency fund. With up to two dependents, aim for six months of expenditure, and for three or four dependents, nine months of expenditure is recommended.
It’s important to note that the term “dependent” refers to individuals who are financially dependent on you. For example, if your parents are still earning, they may be emotionally and physically dependent on you, but they are not considered financially dependent.
Let’s take an example to clarify this further. Suppose your monthly expenditure is 50,000 rupees, and you are a single income-earning individual with two dependents. In this case, your emergency fund should be 50,000 multiplied by 12, which equals 6 lakh rupees. Therefore, you should start thinking about building a 6 lakh rupee emergency fund.
Building Your Emergency Fund
Now that you know how much money you need for your emergency fund, the next question is how to start building it. Building a fund of this magnitude may seem daunting, but the answer is simple: start saving a portion of your income every month.
For example, if you can save 20,000 rupees per month, that’s a great starting point. At this rate, it will take you two and a half years to build the entire 6 lakh rupee emergency fund. While it may require some adjustments to your current financial commitments, investing in your future security is well worth the effort.
You may have some concerns or questions at this point. For instance, you might already be investing in SIPs (Systematic Investment Plans) of 20,000 rupees per month, which leaves little room for additional savings. In such a case, my simple suggestion is to pause your investments for the next two and a half years and redirect that money towards building your emergency fund.
Another common question is whether you can consider existing assets, such as a property or investments in index mutual funds, as part of your emergency fund. The answer is no. Your emergency fund should consist of liquid assets that can be easily accessed when needed. Properties cannot be liquidated immediately, and investments in index mutual funds may not provide the required liquidity during times of crisis.
So, where should you park your money for your emergency fund? My recommendation is to consider two categories that fulfill the necessary criteria: fixed deposits and liquid mutual funds.
Fixed deposits provide a safe and secure option for your emergency fund. They guarantee the return of your principal amount and offer a fixed rate of interest. However, it’s advisable to split your emergency fund into multiple fixed deposits rather than depositing the entire amount in one. This helps in managing your funds efficiently and avoids unnecessary penalties or tax liabilities.
Liquid mutual funds, on the other hand, offer the advantage of easy liquidity. These funds invest in short-term debt instruments that mature within 91 days, making them highly secure. They have no exit loads or lock-in periods, allowing you to withdraw your money within 24 hours or even as quickly as 30 minutes in some cases.
To ensure easy access to your funds and diversify your risk, it’s recommended to split your emergency fund between fixed deposits and liquid mutual funds. For example, allocate 50% of your emergency fund to fixed deposits and the remaining 50% to liquid funds.
Review, Restore, and Restrict
Building an emergency fund is not a one-time activity. It requires periodic review and adjustments to ensure its adequacy. It is recommended to review your emergency fund every two years and top it up based on any increase in your expenses. As time goes by, our expenses tend to rise, and it’s crucial to keep pace with these changes to maintain the effectiveness of your emergency fund.
Furthermore, it’s imperative to restore your emergency fund after using it. Emergencies are unpredictable, and you never know when you might need to dip into your fund. However, once the crisis is resolved, make it a priority to replenish the fund as soon as possible. This ensures that you are prepared for future unforeseen circumstances.
Lastly, it’s crucial to exercise restraint and use your emergency fund only in genuine emergencies. It may be tempting to dip into it for non-essential expenses or desires, but remember that this money is not meant for discretionary spending. It is meant to safeguard you and your loved ones during critical situations.
In conclusion, building an emergency fund is an essential step towards securing your financial future. By following the recommended guidelines and allocating your funds wisely, you can ensure that you are prepared to face any unexpected challenges that life may throw your way. Remember to review, restore, and exercise restraint when it comes to your emergency fund. With these precautions in place, you can navigate crises with confidence and peace of mind.
Thank you for reading! If you have any personal finance or investment-related topics you would like me to cover in future videos, please let me know in the comments. Your feedback is valuable, and I am committed to creating content that addresses your needs. Have a great day!